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Exodus The


Exodus, The, of the Israelites from Egypt. The common chronology places the date of this event at b.c. 1491, deriving it in this way:—In 1 Kings 6:1 it is stated that the building of the temple, in the fourth year of Solomon, was in the 480th year after the exodus. The fourth year of Solomon was about b.c. 1012. Add the 480 years (leaving off one year because neither the fourth nor the 480th was a full year), and we have b.c. 1491 as the date of the exodus. This is probably very nearly correct; but many Egyptologists place it at 215 years later—about b.c. 1300. Which date is right depends chiefly on the interpretation of the Scripture period of 430 years, as denoting the duration of the bondage of the Israelites. The period of bondage given in Gen. 15:13, 14; Ex. 12:40, 41 and Gal. 3:17 as 430 years has been interpreted to cover different periods. The common chronology makes it extend from the call of Abraham to the exodus, one-half of it, or 215 years, being spent in Egypt. Others make it to cover only the period of bondage spent in Egypt. St. Paul says in Gal. 3:17 that from the covenant with (or call of) Abraham to the giving of the law (less than a year after the exodus) was 430 years. But in Gen. 15:13, 14 it is said that they should be strangers in a strange land, and be afflicted 400 years, and nearly the same is said in Ex. 12:40. But, in very truth, the children of Israel were strangers in a strange land from the time that Abraham left his home for the promised land, and during that whole period of 430 years to the exodus they were nowhere rulers in the land. So in Ex. 12:40 it is said that the sojourning of the children of Israel who dwelt in Egypt was 430 years. But it does not say that the sojourning was all in Egypt, but this people who lived in Egypt had been sojourners for 430 years. (a) This is the simplest way of making the various statements harmonize. (b) The chief difficulty is in the great increase of the children of Israel from 70 to 2,000,000 in so short a period as 215 years, while it is very easy in 430 years. But under the circumstances it is perfectly possible in the shorter period. See on ver. 7. (c) If we make the 430 years to include only the bondage in Egypt, we must place the whole chronology of Abraham and the immigration of Jacob into Egypt some 200 years earlier, or else the exodus 200 years later, or b.c. 1300. In either case special difficulty is brought into the reckoning. (d) Therefore, on the whole, it is as well to retain the common chronology, though the later dates may yet prove to be correct.

Authorities

The Pharaoh and Date of the Exodus.

The Pharoah of the Oppression.

Duration of Bondage.

The Pharoah and Date of the Immigration of Jacob.

Wilkinson :

Ancient Egyptians.

Thothmes III.

B.C. 1491

The 18th Dynasty.

215

B.C. 1706

Usirtesen II.

16th Dynasty.

Osburn :

Monumental Egypt.

Siphtha, the successor of Menephthah.

1314

Rameses II.

430

1706

Aphophis, last king of 15th Dynasty.

S. Birch :

Ancient History from the Monuments—Egypt

Menephthah, son of Rameses II.

1300

Rameses II.

(Sesostris).

B.C. 1355.

430

1730

Seti, or Seites.

Lenormant and Chevallier :

Ancient History of the East.

Menephthah.

1300

Rameses II.

400

1700

Seti.

HenryBrugsch-Bey :

History of Egypt under the Pharaohs

Menephthah.

1300

Rameses II.

B.C. 1350.

430

1730

King Nub.

Professor Gustav Seyffarth

Thothmes III.

1866

The 18th Dynasty.

213

2080

The history of the exodus itself commences with the close of that of the ten plagues. [Plagues, The ten.] In the night in which, at midnight, the first-born were slain, Ex. 12:29, Pharaoh urged the departure of the Israelites. vs. 31, 32. They at once set forth from Rameses, vs. 37, 39, apparently during the night, v. 42, but towards morning on the 15th day of the first month. Num. 33:3. They made three journeys, and encamped by the Red Sea. Here Pharaoh overtook them, and the great miracle occurred by which they were saved, while the pursuer and his army were destroyed. [Red Sea, Passage of.]