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A.D. Anno Domini (Latin) = in the year of our Lord.

anc. ancient.

Ann. Annals of Tacitus, a Roman historian.

Ant. Antiquities.

A.U.C. anno urbis conditae = in the year of the building of the city, Rome.

B. & D. Hist. of Bel and the Dragon (Apoc.).

Bar. Baruch (Apoc.).

B.C. Before Christ.

B. R. Biblical Researches, by Dr. Robinson.

Cant. Canticles or Song of Solomon (O.T.).

cf. conferer (French) = compare.

ch. and chs. chapter and chapters, respectively.

1 Chron. 1st Book of Chronicles (O.T.).

2 Chron. 2nd Book of Chronicles (O.T.).

Cic. in Verr. Cicero’s oration against Verres.

cir. circa (Latin) = about.

Col. Ep. to the Colossians (N.T.).

Comm. Commentary.

comp. compare.

1 Cor. 1st Ep. to the Corinthians (N.T.).

2 Cor. 2nd Ep. to the Corinthians (N.T.).

Cyc. Cyclopedia.

Dan. Daniel (O.T.).

Deut. Deuteronomy (O.T.).

Dict. Dictionary.

Eccles. Ecclesiastes (O.T.).

Ecclus. Ecclesiasticus (Apoc.).

ed. edition.

e.g. exempli gratia (Latin) = for example.

Eph. Ep. to the Ephesians (N.T.).

1 Esd. 1st Book of Esdras (Apoc.).

2 Esd. 2nd Book of Esdras (Apoc.).

Euseb. Eusebius, a Greek historian, who died a.d. 340.

Ex. Exodus (O.T.).

Ezek. Ezekiel (O.T.).

f. following (verse or page).

fem. feminine.

ff. following (verses or pages).

Gal. Ep. to the Galatians (N.T.).

Gen. Genesis (O.T.).

Gr. Greek.

Hab. Habakkuk (O.T.).

Hag. Haggai (O.T.).

Handb. Handbook.

Heb. Hebrews or Ep. to the Hebrews (N.T.).

Herod Herodotus, a Greek historian, b.c. 484.

Hist. History.

Hor. Sat. Satires of Horace, a Roman poet, b.c. 65–8.

Hos. Hosea (O.T.).

ib. or ibid. ibidem (Latin) = in the same place.

i.e. id est (Latin) = that is.

in loc. in loco (Latin) = in the place or on the passage cited.

Isa. Isaiah (O.T.).

Jud. Judith (Apoc.).

Jer. Jeremiah (O.T.).

Jon. Jonah (O.T.).

Jos. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews.

Jos. B. J. Josephus, Bellum Judaicum = Jewish War.

Josh. Joshua (O.T.).

Juven. Sat. Satires of Juvenal, a Roman poet.

Lam. Lamentations of Jeremiah (O.T.).

l.c. loco citato (Latin) = at the place cited. locis citatis (Latin) = at the places cited.

Lev. Leviticus (O.T.).

lib. liber (Latin) = book.

Linn. Linnaeus, the Swedish naturalist.

lit. literal, or literally.

Liv. Livy, a Roman historian.

LXX The Seventy, i.e., the Septuagint.

1 Macc. 1st Book of Maccabees (Apoc.).

2 Macc. 2nd Book of Maccabees (Apoc.).

3 Macc. 3rd Book of Maccabees (Apoc.).

4 Macc. 4th Book of Maccabees (Apoc.).

Mal. Malachi (O.T.).

marg. margin or marginal.

Mart. Martial, a Roman poet, a.d. 40–100.

Matt. Gospel according to Matthew.

Mic. Micah (O.T.).

Mod. Eg. Modern Egyptians, by Lane.

MS Manuscript.

MSS Manuscripts.

Nah. Nahum (O.T.).

Neh. Nehemiah (O.T.).

Nin. and Bab. Nineveh and Babylon, by Layard.

Num. Numbers (O.T.).

Obad. Obadiah (O.T.).

p., pp. page and pages, respectively.

Pers. Persian.

1 Pet. 1st Ep. of Peter (N.T.).

2 Pet. 2nd Ep. of Peter (N.T.).

Philip. Ep. to the Philippians (N.T.).

Phil. Ep. to Philemon (N.T.).

Polyb. Polybius, a Greek historian, b.c. 205–123.

Prov. Proverbs (O.T.).

Ps., Pss. Psalm or Psalms (O.T.), respectively.

Ptol. Ptolemy.

R. Rabbi (before a Jewish name).

Rawl. Rawlinson.

Rev. Revelation, or Apocalypse (N.T.).

Rom. Ep. to the Romans (N.T.).

1 Sam. 1st Book of Samuel (O.T.).

2 Sam. 2nd Book of Samuel (O.T.).

S. and P. Sinai and Palestine, by Stanley.

sc. scilicet (Latin) = that is to say.

sq. or seq. sequens (Latin) = following (verse).

seqq. sequentia (Latin) = following (verses).

Suet. Suetonius, a historian, a.d. 100.

Sus. History of Susanna (Apoc.).

Syr. Syria or Syriac.

Tac. Tacitus, a Roman historian, a.d. 56–135.

1 Thess. 1st Ep. to the Thessalonians (N.T.).

2 Thess. 2nd Ep. to the Thessalonians (N.T.).

1 Tim. 1st Ep. to Timothy (N.T.).

2 Tim. 2nd Ep. to Timothy (N.T.).

Tit. Ep. to Titus (N.T.).

Tob. Tobit (Apoc.).

ver., vs. verse, verses.

viz. videlicet (Latin) = namely.

vol. volume.

Wisd. Wisdom (Apoc.).

Zech. Zechariah (O.T.).

Zeph. Zephaniah (O.T.).

§ denotes section or subdivision of chapter.

= denotes equivalent to.

Words in brackets and printed in small capitals, thus [Talmud], refer the reader, for further information, to those articles in the Dictionary.

A Dictionary of the Bible