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Cities. The earliest notice in Scripture of city-building is of Enoch by Cain, in the land of his exile. Gen. 4:17. After the confusion of tongues the descendants of Nimrod founded Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar, and Asshur, a branch from the same stock, built Nineveh, Rehoboth-by-the-river, Calah, and Resen, the last being “a great city.” The earliest description of a city, properly so called, is that of Sodom. Gen. 19:1-22. Even before the time of Abraham there were cities in Egypt, Gen. 12:14, 15; Num. 13:22, and the Israelites, during their sojourn there, were employed in building or fortifying the “treasure cities” of Pithom and Raamses. Ex. 1:11.

Fenced cities, fortified with high walls, Deut. 3:5, were occupied and perhaps partly rebuilt after the conquest, by the settled inhabitants of Syria on both sides of the Jordan.