Dung. The uses of dung were two-fold—as manure and as fuel. The manure consisted either of straw steeped in liquid manure, Isa. 25:10, or the sweepings, Isa. 5:25, of the streets and roads, which were carefully removed from about the houses, and collected in heaps outside the walls of the towns at fixed spots—hence the dung-gate at Jerusalem—and thence removed in due course to the fields. The difficulty of procuring fuel in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt has made dung in all ages valuable as a substitute. It was probably used for heating ovens and for baking cakes, Ezra 4:12, 15, the equable heat which it produced adapting it peculiarly for the latter operation. Cow’s and camel’s dung is still used for a similar purpose by the Bedouins.