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Medicine. Egypt was the earliest home of medical and other skill for the region of the Mediterranean basin, and every Egyptian mummy of the more expensive and elaborate sort involved a process of anatomy. Still we have no trace of any philosophical or rational system of Egyptian origin; and medicine in Egypt was a mere art or profession. Compared with the wild countries around them, however, the Egyptians must have seemed incalculably advanced. Representations of early Egyptian surgery apparently occur on some of the monuments of Beni-Hassan. Those who have assisted at the opening of a mummy have noticed that the teeth exhibited a dentistry not inferior in execution to the work of the best modern experts. This confirms the statement of Herodotus that every part of the body was studied by a distinct practitioner. The reputation of Egypt’s practitioners in historical times was such that both Cyrus and Darius sent to that country for physicians or surgeons. Of midwifery we have a distinct notice, Ex. 1:15, and of women as its practitioners, which fact may also be verified from the sculptures. The scrupulous attention paid to the dead was favorable to the health of the living. The practice of physic was not among the Jews a privilege of the priesthood. Any one might practice it, and this publicity must have kept it pure. Rank and honor are said to be the portion of the physician, and his office to be from the Lord. Ecclus. 38:1, 3, 12. To bring down the subject to the period of the New Testament, St. Luke, “the beloved physician,” who practiced at Antioch whilst the body was his care, could hardly have failed to be conversant with all the leading opinions current down to his own time. Among special diseases named in the Old Testament is ophthalmia, Gen. 29:17, which is perhaps more common in Syria and Egypt than anywhere else in the world; especially in the fig season, the juice of the newly-ripe fruit having the power of giving it. It may occasion partial or total blindness. 2 Kings 6:18. The “burning boil,” Lev. 13:23, is merely marked by the notion of an effect resembling that of fire, like our “carbuncle.” The diseases rendered “scab” and “scurvy” in Lev. 21:20; 22:22; Deut. 28:27, may be almost any skin disease. Some of these may be said to approach the type of leprosy. The “botch (shechı̂n) of Egypt,” Deut. 28:27, is so vague a term as to yield a most uncertain sense. In Deut. 28:35 is mentioned a disease attacking the “knees and legs,” consisting in a “sore botch which cannot be healed,” but extended, in the sequel of the verse, from the “sole of the foot to the top of the head.” The Elephantiasis græcorum is what now passes under the name of “leprosy”; the lepers, e.g., of the huts near the Zion gate of modern Jerusalem are elephantiasiacs. [Leprosy.] The disease of King Antiochus, 2 Macc. 9:5-10, etc., was that of a boil breeding worms. The case of the widow’s son restored by Elisha, 2 Kings 4:19, was probably one of sunstroke. The palsy meets us in the New Testament only, and in features too familiar to need special remark. Palsy, gangrene, and cancer were common in all the countries familiar to the scriptural writers, and neither differs from the modern disease of the same name. Mention is also made of the bites and stings of poisonous reptiles. Num. 21:6. Among surgical instruments or pieces of apparatus the following only are alluded to in Scripture: A cutting instrument, supposed a “sharp stone,” Ex. 4:25; the “knife” of Josh. 5:2. The “awl” of Ex. 21:6 was probably a surgical instrument. The “roller to bind” of Ezek. 30:21 was for a broken limb, and is still used. A scraper, for which the “potsherd” of Job was a substitute. Job 2:8. Ex. 30:23-25 is a prescription in form. An occasional trace occurs of some chemical knowledge, e.g., the calcination of the gold by Moses, Ex. 32:20; the effect of “vinegar upon natron,” Prov. 25:20; comp. Jer. 2:22. The mention of “the apothecary,” Ex. 30:35; Eccles. 10:1, and of the merchant in “powders,” Song. 3:6, shows that a distinct and important branch of trade was set up in these wares, in which, as at a modern druggist’s, articles of luxury, etc., are combined with the remedies of sickness. Among the most favorite of external remedies has always been the bath. There were special occasions on which the bath was ceremonially enjoined. The Pharisees and Essenes aimed at scrupulous strictness in all such rules. Matt. 15:2; Mark 7:5; Luke 11:38. River-bathing was common, but houses soon began to include a bathroom. Lev. 15:13; 2 Sam. 11:2; 2 Kings 5:10.