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Mortar. Gen. 11:3; Ex. 1:14; Lev. 14:42, 45; Isa. 41:25; Ezek. 13:10, 11, 14, 15; 22:28; Nah. 3:14. The various compacting substances used in Oriental buildings appear to be—

1. Bitumen, as in the Babylonian structures; 2. Common mud or moistened clay; 3. A very firm cement compounded of sand, ashes, and lime, in the proportions respectively of 1, 2, 3, well pounded, sometimes mixed and sometimes coated with oil, so as to form a surface almost impenetrable to wet or the weather. In Assyrian and also Egyptian brick buildings, stubble or straw, as hair or wool among ourselves, was added to increase the tenacity.