New Testament. It is proposed in this article to consider the text of the New Testament. The subject naturally divides itself into—I. The history of the written text; II. The history of the printed text.
I. The History of the Written Text.—
1. The early history of the apostolic writings externally, as far as it can be traced, is the same as that of other contemporary books. St. Paul, like Cicero or Pliny, often employed the services of an amanuensis, to whom he dictated his letters, affixing the salutation “with his own hand.” 1 Cor. 16:21; 2 Thess. 3:17; Col. 4:18. The original copies seem to have soon perished. 2. In the natural course of things the apostolic autographs would be likely to perish soon. The material which was commonly used for letters, the papyrus paper, to which St. John incidentally alludes, 2 John 12, comp. 3 John 13, was singularly fragile, and even the stouter kinds, likely to be used for the historical books, were not fitted to bear constant use. The papyrus fragments which have come down to the present time have been preserved under peculiar circumstances, as at Herculaneum or in the Egyptian tombs. 3. In the time of the Diocletian persecution, a.d. 303, copies of the Christian Scriptures were sufficiently numerous to furnish a special object for persecutors. Partly, perhaps, owing to the destruction thus caused, but still more from the natural effects of time, no MS of the New Testament of the first three centuries remains. But though no fragment of the New Testament of the first century still remains, the Italian and Egyptian papyri, which are of that date, give a clear notion of the caligraphy of the period. In these the text is written in columns, rudely divided, in somewhat awkward capital letters (uncials), without any punctuation or division of words; and there is no trace of accents or breathings. 4. In addition to the later MSS, the earliest versions and patristic quotations give very important testimony to the character and history of the ante-Nicene text; but till the last quarter of the second century this source of information fails us. Not only are the remains of Christian literature up to that time extremely scanty, but the practice of verbal quotation from the New Testament was not yet prevalent. As soon as definite controversies arose among Christians, the text of the New Testament assumed its true importance. 5. Several very important conclusions follow from this earliest appearance of textual criticism. It is in the first place evident that various readings existed in the books of the New Testament at a time prior to all extant authorities. History affords no trace of the pure apostolic originals. Again, from the preservation of the first variations noticed, which are often extremely minute, in one or more of the primary documents still left, we may be certain that no important changes have been made in the sacred text which we cannot now detect. 6. Passing from these isolated quotations, we find the first great witnesses to the apostolic text in the early Syriac and Latin versions, and in the rich quotations of Clement of Alexandria (†cir. a.d. 220) and Origen (a.d. 184–254). From the extant works of Origen alone no inconsiderable portion of the whole New Testament might be transcribed; and his writings are an almost inexhaustible storehouse for the history of the text. There can be no doubt that in Origen’s time the variations in the New Testament MSS were beginning to lead to the formation of specific groups of copies. 7. The most ancient MSS and versions now extant exhibit the characteristic differences which have been found to exist in different parts of the works of Origen. These cannot have had their source later than the beginning of the third century, and probably were much earlier. Bengel was the first (1734) who pointed out the affinity of certain groups of MSS, which, as he remarks, must have arisen before the first versions were made. The honor of carefully determining the relations of critical authorities for the New Testament text belongs to Griesbach. According to him two distinct recensions of the Gospels existed at the beginning of the third century—the Alexandrine and the Western. 8. From the consideration of the earliest history of the New Testament text we now pass to the era of MSS. The quotations of Dionysius Alex. (†a.d. 264), Petrus Alex. (†cir. a.d. 312), Methodius (†a.d. 311) and Eusebius (†a.d. 340) confirm the prevalence of the ancient type of text; but the public establishment of Christianity in the Roman empire necessarily led to important changes. The nominal or real adherence of the higher ranks to the Christian faith must have largely increased the demand for costly MSS. As a natural consequence the rude Hellenistic forms gave way before the current Greek, and at the same time it is reasonable to believe that smoother and fuller constructions were substituted for the rougher turns of the apostolic language. In this way the foundation of the Byzantine text was laid. Meanwhile the multiplication of copies in Africa and Syria was checked by Mohammedan conquests. 9. The appearance of the oldest MSS has been already described. The MSS of the fourth century, of which Codex Vaticanus may be taken as a type, present a close resemblance to these. The writing is in elegant continuous uncials (capitals), in three columns, without initial letters or iota subscript or adscript. A small interval serves as a simple punctuation; and there are no accents or breathings by the hand of the first writer, though these have been added subsequently. Uncial writing continued in general use till the middle of the tenth century. From the eleventh century downward cursive writing prevailed. The earliest cursive biblical MS is dated 964 a.d. The MSS of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries abound in the contractions which afterward passed into the early printed books. The oldest MSS are written on the thinnest and finest vellum; in later copies the parchment is thick and coarse. Papyrus was very rarely used after the ninth century. In the tenth century cotton paper was generally employed in Europe; and one example at least occurs of its use in the ninth century. In the twelfth century the common linen or rag paper came into use. One other kind of material requires notice—re-dressed parchment, called palimpsests. Even at a very early period the original text of a parchment MS was often erased, that the material might be used afresh. In lapse of time the original writing frequently reappeared in faint lines below the later text, and in this way many precious fragments of biblical MSS, which had been once obliterated for the transcription of other works, have been recovered. 10. The division of the Gospels into “chapters” must have come into general use some time before the fifth century. The division of the Acts and Epistles into chapters came into use at a later time. It is commonly referred to Euthalius, who, however, says that he borrowed the divisions of the Pauline Epistles from an earlier father; and there is reason to believe that the division of the Acts and Catholic Epistles which he published was originally the work of Pamphilus the martyr. The Apocalypse was divided into sections by Andreas of Cæsarea about a.d. 500. The titles of the sacred books are from their nature additions to the original text. The distinct names of the Gospels imply a collection, and the titles of the Epistles are notes by the possessors, and not addresses by the writers. 11. Very few MSS contain the whole New Testament—twenty-seven in all out of the vast mass of extant documents. Besides the MSS of the New Testament, or of parts of it, there are also lectionaries, which contain extracts arranged for the church services. 12. The number of uncial MSS remaining, though great when compared with the ancient MSS extant of other writings, is inconsiderable. Tischendorf reckons forty in the Gospels. To these must be added Cod. Sinait., which is entire; a new MS of Tischendorf, which is nearly entire; and Cod. Zacynth., which contains considerable fragments of St. Luke. In the Acts there are nine; in the Catholic Epistles five; in the Pauline Epistles fourteen; in the Apocalypse three. 13. A complete description of these MSS is given in the great critical editions of the New Testament. Here those only can be briefly noticed which are of primary importance, the first place being given to the latest-discovered and most complete Codex Sinaiticus—the Cod. Frid. Aug. of LXX at St. Petersburg, obtained by Tischendorf from the convent of St. Catherine, Mount Sinai, in 1859. The New Testament is entire, and the Epistle of Barnabas and parts of the Shepherd of Hermas are added. It is probably the oldest of the MSS of the New Testament and of the fourth century. Codex Alexandrinus (Brit. Mus.), a MS of the entire Greek Bible, with the Epistles of Clement added. It was given by Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, to Charles I in 1628, and is now in the British Museum. It contains the whole of the New Testament, with some chasms. It was probably written in the first half of the fifth century. Codex Vaticanus (1209), a MS of the entire Greek Bible, which seems to have been in the Vatican Library almost from its commencement (cir. a.d. 1450). It contains the New Testament entire to Heb. 9:14, καθα: the rest of the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Pastoral Epistles and the Apocalypse were added in the fifteenth century. The MS is assigned to the fourth century. Codex Ephraemi rescriptus (Paris, Bibl. Imp. 9), a palimpsest MS which contains fragments of the LXX and of every part of the New Testament. In the twelfth century the original writing was effaced and some Greek writings of Ephraem Syrus were written over it. The MS was brought to Florence from the East at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and came thence to Paris with Catherine de Medici. The only entire books which have perished are 2 Thess. and 2 John. 14. The number of the cursive MSS (minuscules) in existence cannot be accurately calculated. Tischendorf catalogues about 500 of the Gospels, 200 of the Acts and Catholic Epistles, 250 of the Pauline Epistles, and a little less than 100 of the Apocalypse (exclusive of lectionaries); but this enumeration can only be accepted as a rough approximation. 15. Having surveyed in outline the history of the transmission of the written text and the chief characteristics of the MSS in which it is preserved, we are in a position to consider the extent and nature of the variations which exist in different copies. It is impossible to estimate the number of these exactly, but they cannot be less than 120,000 in all, though of these a very large proportion consists of differences of spelling and isolated aberrations of scribes, and of the remainder comparatively few alterations are sufficiently well supported to create reasonable doubt as to the final judgment. Probably there are not more than 1600–2000 places in which the true reading is a matter of uncertainty. 16. Various readings are due to different causes: some arose from accidental, others from intentional, alterations of the original text. 17. Other variations are due to errors of sight. Others may be described as errors of impression or memory. The copyist, after reading a sentence from the text before him, often failed to reproduce it exactly. Variations of order are the most frequent and very commonly the most puzzling questions of textual criticism. Examples occur in every page, almost in every verse, of the New Testament. 18. Of intentional changes some affect the expression, others the substance of the passage. 19. The number of readings which seem to have been altered for distinctly dogmatic reasons is extremely small. In spite of the great revolutions in thought, feeling, and practice through which the Christian Church passed in fifteen centuries, the copyists of the New Testament faithfully preserved, according to their ability, the sacred trust committed to them. There is not any trace of intentional revision designed to give support to current opinions. Matt. 17:21; Mark 9:29; 1 Cor. 7:5, need scarcely be noticed. 20. The great mass of various readings are simply variations in form. There are, however, one or two greater variations of a different character. The most important of these are Mark 16; John 7:53–8:12; Rom. 16:25-27. The first stands quite by itself; and there seems to be little doubt that it contains an authentic narrative, but not by the hand of St. John. The two others, taken in connection with the last chapter of St. John’s Gospel, suggest the possibility that the apostolic writings may have undergone in some cases authoritative revision. 21. Manuscripts, it must be remembered, are but one of the three sources of textual criticism. The versions and patristic quotations are scarcely less important in doubtful cases.
II. The History of the Printed Text.—The history of the printed text of the New Testament may be divided into three periods. The first of these extends from the labors of the Complutensian editors to those of Mill; the second from Mill to Scholz; the third from Lachmann to the present time. The criticism of the first period was necessarily tentative and partial: the materials available for the construction of the text were few and imperfectly known. The second period marks a great progress: the evidence of MSS, of versions, of the fathers, was collected with the greatest diligence and success; authorities were compared and classified; principles of observation and judgment were laid down. But the influence of the former period still lingered. The third period was introduced by the declaration of a new and sounder law. It was laid down that no right of possession could be pleaded against evidence. The “received” text, as such, was allowed no weight whatever. Its authority, on this view, must depend solely on critical worth. From first to last, in minute details of order and orthography, as well as in graver questions of substantial alteration, the text must be formed by a free and unfettered judgment.
The following are the earliest editions:
1. The Complutensian Polyglot.—The glory of printing the first Greek Testament is due to the princely Cardinal Ximenes. This great prelate as early as 1502 engaged the services of a number of scholars to superintend an edition of the whole Bible in the original Hebrew and Greek, with the addition of the Chaldee Targum of Onkelos, the LXX version and the Vulgate. The volume containing the New Testament was printed first, and was completed on January 10, 1514. The whole work was not finished till July 10, 1517. (It was called Complutensian because it was printed at Complutum, in Spain.—Ed.) 2. The edition of Erasmus.—The edition of Erasmus was the first published edition of the New Testament. Erasmus had paid considerable attention to the study of the New Testament, when he received an application from Froben, a printer of Basle with whom he was acquainted, to prepare a Greek text for the press. The request was made on April 17, 1515, and the whole work was finished in February, 1516. 3. The edition of Stephens.—The scene of our history now changes from Basle to Paris. In 1543, Simon de Colines (Colinæus) published a Greek text of the New Testament, corrected in about 150 places on fresh MS authority. Not long after it appeared, R. Estienne (Stephanus) published his first edition (1546), which was based on a collation of MSS in the Royal Library with the Complutensian text. 4. The editions of Beza and Elzevir.—The Greek text of Beza (dedicated to Queen Elizabeth) was printed by H. Stephens in 1565, and a second edition in 1576; but the chief edition was the third, printed in 1582, which contained readings from Codex Bezæ and Codex Claromontanus.
The literal sense of the apostolic writings must be gained in the same way as the literal sense of any other writings—by the fullest use of every appliance of scholarship, and the most complete confidence in the necessary and absolute connection of words and thoughts. No variation of phrase, no peculiarity of idiom, no change of tense, no change of order, can be neglected. The truth lies in the whole expression, and no one can presume to set aside any part as trivial or indifferent. The importance of investigating most patiently and most faithfully the literal meaning of the sacred text must be felt with tenfold force when it is remembered that the literal sense is the outward embodiment of a spiritual sense, which lies beneath and quickens every part of Holy Scripture. [Bible.]