Shalmane’ser (fire-worshipper) was the Assyrian king who reigned probably between Tiglath-pileser and Sargon, b.c. 727–722. He led the forces of Assyria into Palestine, where Hoshea, the last king of Israel, had revolted against his authority. 2 Kings 17:3. Hoshea submitted and consented to pay tribute; but he soon after concluded an alliance with the king of Egypt, and withheld his tribute in consequence. In b.c. 723 Shalmaneser invaded Palestine for the second time, and, as Hoshea refused to submit, laid siege to Samaria. The siege lasted to the third year, b.c. 721, when the Assyrian arms prevailed. 2 Kings 17:4–6; 18:9–11. It is uncertain whether Shalmaneser conducted the siege to its close, or whether he did not lose his crown to Sargon before the city was taken.